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March 29,2024

Justice Prevails As SBF Sentenced To 25 Years In Prison

Following a sentencing hearing in federal court, Sam Bankman-Fried (SBF), the disgraced former CEO of FTX, is set to serve 25 years in prison, as decided by Judge Lewis Kaplan of the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York.

Judge Kaplan handed down a total sentence of 240 months and 60 months for seven felony charges. Bankman-Fried, the first individual associated with FTX and Alameda Research to face prison time since the collapse of the exchange in November 2022, was found guilty of witness tampering and perjury during the trial regarding FTX user funds. Despite Sam making light of the situation, Judge Kaplan emphasized the severity of the crime and criticized his behavior during the proceedings.


SBF Regrets How Things Went

The court suggested deducting the time already served by Bankman-Fried, resulting in a remaining prison term of 291 months, and also proposed an $11-billion judgement in addition to the prison sentence. Judge Kaplan highlighted the significant losses incurred by FTX investors, lenders, and customers, amounting to $1.7 billion, $1.3 billion, and $8 billion, respectively.

During the sentencing hearing, the courtroom was filled with members of the public and officials. Bankman-Fried appeared in the uniform of the Metropolitan Detention Center in Brooklyn, where he has been detained since the revocation of his bail. Despite expressing regret for the events, Bankman-Fried asserted that FTX could have survived if it had not been shut down.


A Harsh Reality

The defense portrayed Sam as a misunderstood individual who made decisions based on calculations rather than malicious intent. However, Assistant U.S. Attorney Nicolas Roos criticized Bankman-Fried for not taking responsibility for his actions.

The sentence handed down by Judge Kaplan fell between the recommendations of various attorneys and prosecutors representing Sam, who proposed maximum sentences of 6.5 and 50 years, respectively. Several other individuals associated with FTX and Alameda have pleaded guilty and accepted deals in the same case. Ryan Salame, the former co-CEO of FTX Digital Markets, is scheduled for sentencing on May 1st.


March 28,2024

Huge AI Merger Between Fetch, Ocean Protocol, And SingularityNET Announced

Artificial Intelligence (AI) made a significant impact on the technological landscape, transcending its status as merely a buzzword to become a driving force shaping our world. Notable projects like ChatGPT and DALL-E have garnered attention by industry giants such as Microsoft and Google, intensifying the competition to lead in this field.

Decentralized entities like SingularityNet, Ocean Protocol, and Fetch.AI are at the forefront, advocating for democratizing access to AI. Now, these entities are proposing a merger of their blockchain networks, forming the Artificial Superintelligence Alliance (ASI).


The Race Is On

The merger, valued at $7.5 billion, aims to create the largest open-sourced decentralized network in the world, accelerating the race towards Artificial General Intelligence (AGI). As part of this alliance, tokens by Fetch.AI, Ocean Protocol, and SingularityNet will all converge into a single $ASI token, enhancing the scale and capabilities of the combined AI network.

Dr. Ben Goertzel, CEO of SingularityNet, emphasized the importance of democratizing AI and avoiding centralized control, stating that the alliance aligns with the vision of open and decentralized AI development. The leadership of the ASI will include figures via the merging entities, operating closely within the tokenomic ecosystem while retaining separate identities.


Challenging The Monopoly

The announcement of the merger has had a significant impact on token values, with OCEAN experiencing a notable surge. This development signifies a challenge to the monopoly over AI technologies that is currently held by Big Tech companies, marking a significant milestone for both the crypto and AI industries.

The ASI aims to leverage the growth of AI projects and challenge the dominance of Big Tech in AI development and monetization. By creating a decentralized infrastructure, the alliance seeks to transform closed-source AI systems into open networks, fostering collaboration towards common goals.

Upon approval, the merger will involve token migrations with specified conversion rates, resulting in a unified token with a substantial market value. Bruce Pon, CEO of Ocean Protocol, sees this combination as a step towards integrating decentralized technologies on a global scale, facilitated by the ASI token.


March 28,2024

Experts Claim Blast Hack Was In Fact An Inside Job

Munchables, a GameFi venture developed on Blast, recently announced a loss of $62 million due to being hacked. An additional $25 million was safeguarded in a connected vault of Juice Finance because of an apparent typographical error.

By placing the address of the hacker on a blacklist, the network managed to isolate the funds and persuade the attacker to relinquish control of the private keys. However, there are other peculiarities, as on-chain evidence presented by investigator ZachXBT suggests that the perpetrator used various pseudonyms.


An Evil Within

ZachXBT noted on X that four different developers hired by the Munchables team and linked to the exploiter are likely all the same individual, following the incident. Juice Finance users, who utilized a vault and bot system designed to engage in the game and earn valuable points swiftly, were also vulnerable, according to Chief Operating Officer Eric Ryklin.

Juice Finance independently assessed the Munchables code before launching its own product. Ryklin stated that the malicious exploit was not found in their code, nor in their actual audit, before further claiming that this individual implemented an upgrade that went unnoticed and unverified. Doing so essentially granted the individual access to three wallets with unlimited withdrawal capabilities, in addition to possessing the keys to the upgrader and the main deployer wallet, he explained.


Damage Control

Juice and Munchables had shared investors, and both teams maintained regular communication leading up to the theft, Ryklin revealed. The malevolent actor, who was employed by Munchables, was part of a group chat that included the Juice team. Ryklin recollected that they encountered this individual in a developer Discord within the community, and it later transpired post-hack that the team did not own their contracts.

The hacker reportedly inserted three sleeper wallets into the actual contract that went unnoticed initially, Ryklin stated. However, the moment he initiated a transaction, that sleeper wallet would become public, enabling the Blast sequencer to blacklist him. A spokesperson for security firm CertiK stated it was highly unusual that the funds were then returned to the project through a malicious DPRK-affiliated worker, referring to agents of the North Korean government. They assessed it could be a rogue developer who, upon their identity being revealed, decided to return the funds after pressure by the Web3 community to prevent further backlash.

March 27,2024

Reputable Bitcoin Miner Will Establish New Base In Argentina

The Texas-based Bitcoin miner, Giga Energy, has expanded its operations into Argentina, aiming to utilize excess energy via natural gas flaring in the local oil fields. According to Giga co-founder Brent Whitehead, this expansion marks a significant milestone for the firm, broadening its operational scope and aligning with its vision to address flaring globally.


Slow And Steady

The new mining site in Argentina, situated in the province of Mendoza, has been undergoing testing since December and has already mined a substantial amount of Bitcoin. The pro-Bitcoin stance of the Argentinian President, Javier Milei, has also helped matters. However, the firm is still awaiting the import of necessary equipment before fully scaling up the operation.

Gas flaring, associated with oil extraction, releases methane, which Giga converts into electricity to power its Bitcoin mining equipment. Giga initiated its Bitcoin mining operations in 2019 and currently has 150 megawatts of container capacity installed in its Texas and Shanghai facilities. The expansion involves placing a large shipping container housing thousands of Bitcoin miners atop an oil well, redirecting excess gas into generators, and utilizing that energy for Bitcoin mining.


A New World For BTC Mining

Argentina possesses the second largest shale gas reserve in the world, contributing to the viability of this venture by Giga. Additionally, the Bitcoin mining operation will reportedly help reduce methane emissions, contributing to environmental sustainability. Exa Tech, an IT services company, will assist Giga with onsite operations, while Phoenix Global Resources, an oil and gas company, will supply the gas required for Bitcoin mining.

As Bitcoin mining firms gear up for the impending halving event, slated for around April 20th, there could be a shift in global hash rate distribution, potentially favoring countries with lower electricity costs and those which tend to favor cryptocurrencies in general, like Argentina and Paraguay.


March 27,2024

KuCoin And Its Founders Sued By United States Department Of Justice

The U.S. Department of Justice (DoJ) alongside the Commodity and Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) have brought charges and initiated legal action against KuCoin, a leading global cryptocurrency exchange, and two of its founders for breaching the Bank Secrecy Act and engaging in unlicensed money transmission.

In their announcement, the DoJ asserted that KuCoin, along with its co-founders Chun Gan and Ke Tang, violated U.S. Anti-Money Laundering Laws by establishing KuCoin as one of the foremost cryptocurrency exchanges worldwide.


Breaking The Law

Southern District of New York Attorney General, Damian Williams, and Acting Special Agent in Charge of the New York Homeland Security Investigations Field Office, Darren McCormack, disclosed that an indictment had been filed against KuCoin and its founders Chun Gan and Ke Tang. As per the indictment, KuCoin and its founders Chun and Ke Tang are accused of colluding to run an unlicensed money transmission business and conspiring to breach Bank Secrecy laws.

Damian Williams stated regarding the Kucoin case that as outlined in the indictment, KuCoin and its founders knowingly concealed the fact that a substantial number of U.S. users were engaging in transactions on the crypto exchange platform. Indeed, he further stated, KuCoin purportedly utilized its significant U.S. customer base to emerge as one of the largest cryptocurrency derivatives and spot exchanges globally, conducting billions of dollars in daily transactions and trillions of dollars in annual trading volume.


Clarity Is Key

However, Damian clarified, while capitalizing on distinct opportunities in the United States, financial entities like KuCoin are also obligated to adhere to U.S. regulations to aid in the identification and dismantling of criminal activities and illicit financing schemes. Allegedly, KuCoin consciously opted not to comply with these regulations.

The defendants purportedly neglected to implement even rudimentary anti-money laundering measures, permitting KuCoin to operate within the shadows of financial markets and serve as a refuge for illicit money laundering. Damian concluded that the indictment should serve as a clear warning to other cryptocurrency exchanges in the sense that if they intend to cater to U.S. customers, they must abide by U.S. law, without exception.


March 26,2024

Do Kwon Trial Begins Despite The Founder Not Actually Showing Up

The civil fraud trial involving Terraform Labs Founder Do Kwon reportedly commenced on Monday in a Manhattan court. Media journalist Zack Guzman shared a series of updates, offering more insights into the legal proceedings. A jury has been selected, and opening statements were delivered by both the SEC and defense teams, along with some amusing moments by Judge Rakoff.


Day 1 Rundown

The case originated in 2022 when Terraform Labs experienced a crash, leading to Kwon being arrested in Montenegro on fraud charges. Subsequent events, including extradition delays, prompted the lawyers representing Kwon to request a trial postponement initially set for January, now rescheduled to late March. However, the extradition status of Kwon remained uncertain, rendering him unavailable for the trial.

According to Guzman, Judge Jed S. Rakoff established various ground rules for the trial, which is anticipated to last two weeks. Guzman further detailed the jury selection process, initially comprising 6 women and 3 men, eventually resulting in a jury consisting of 3 men and 6 women, predominantly minorities.


The Devil Is In The Details

While the SEC presented its arguments at the hearing, Guzman suggested their stance mirrored that of the FTX case. He noted the opening and closing statements were nearly identical, particularly concerning the lines which stated that this was a case about fraud and that this trial is not about the technology.

Additionally, it was reported that the SEC launched an attack on Terraform and Kwon, alleging the fraudulent nature of the company. SEC attorney Devon Staren asserted that Terra was indeed a fraud, a house of cards, and when it collapsed, investors lost nearly everything. Conversely, Terraform lawyer David Patton defended the company, asserting that failure does not necessarily equal fraud.

March 26,2024

London Stock Exchange Will Add Bitcoin And Ethereum ETNs In May

The upcoming debut of Bitcoin (BTC) and Ethereum (ETH) exchange-traded notes (ETNs) on the London Stock Exchange (LSE) on May 28th, 2024, marks a significant development amid dwindling trading activity and challenges facing the exchange. The LSE, renowned for hosting top-tier blue-chip stocks, announced this move earlier today, following its earlier indication of accepting applications for crypto ETNs in the second quarter of this year.

Beginning April 8th of this year, companies keen on listing their Bitcoin and Ethereum ETNs on the new market can initiate the application process, as confirmed by the exchange. Ahead of the scheduled launch, issuers will have ample time to fulfill listing prerequisites and assemble requisite documentation, including a prospectus subject to approval by the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA), as noted by the LSE. The aim is to facilitate maximum issuer participation on the inaugural day.


The Application Process

To qualify for the initial offering, issuers must furnish a comprehensive letter and a draft base prospectus by April 15th, showcasing adherence to the criteria outlined in the Crypto ETN factsheet. Mandatory FCA endorsement of these prospectuses is imperative for ETNs to secure listing on both the Main Market and the Official List, as emphasized by the LSE.

Emphasizing stringent criteria and deadlines, the LSE clarified that issuers failing to meet these prerequisites will forfeit participation in the launch of the LSE Crypto ETN market. Comparable to exchange-traded funds (ETFs), ETNs afford exposure to a diversified array of assets. However, their structures diverge. While an ETF represents partial ownership of underlying assets, an ETN resembles an unsecured debt note issued by a bank. The bank employs proceeds to invest in assets mirroring a specific index, with the value of the ETN reflecting asset performance.


Getting Back On Track

Under FCA regulations, forthcoming Bitcoin and Ethereum ETNs will be exclusive to professional investors, limiting participation to authorized credit institutions and investment firms operating in financial markets, while retail investors are excluded.

Amid challenges threatening its stature as a premier financial hub, the LSE has faced a substantial decline in listed companies, with 2023 marking the lowest IPO activity since 2009. Moreover, trading volumes on the LSE have significantly contracted compared to pre-crisis levels. Factors contributing to these challenges include shifting investor preferences, competition via global exchanges, and regulatory dynamics.

With mounting interest by institutional investors, the digital asset market presents a lucrative opportunity for the LSE. Establishing a regulated and secure digital asset environment could attract investments and bolster the digital asset economy of the United Kingdom.


March 25,2024

New Payment Limit For Crypto Wallets Scrapped By European Union

The recent Anti-Money Laundering regulations in the European Union impose restrictions on cash and certain crypto transactions, but proposed limits on noncustodial wallets were not included in the final version.

As of now, the key committees have removed a proposed 1,000 euro cap on cryptocurrency payments regarding self-hosted crypto wallets as part of these new laws. The legislation, passed on March 19th, aligns with the provisions agreed upon by the European Council and Parliament in January.


More Regulations

Previously suggested restrictions, such as limiting businesses to 1,000 euros for transactions using self-hosted crypto wallets and implementing identity checks on recipients of funds, have been discarded. However, Crypto-Asset Service Providers (CASPs) in the EU are required to conduct identity verification checks on users engaging in business transactions of at least 1,000 euros.

These laws complement existing regulations, such as the Markets in Crypto-Assets (MiCA) laws, and reinforce prohibitions on CASPs offering accounts to anonymous users or dealing with privacy coins like Monero (XMR), which conceal transaction details.

CASPs are also mandated to take steps for transfers between their platform and self-custody wallets, including verifying the identity of the exchange wallet holder for funds sent through a self-custody wallet. Furthermore, the regulations cap cash payments at 10,000 euros, with member states having the option to set lower limits, and prohibit anonymous cash transactions over 3,000 euros.


A Mixed Bag

The full implementation of the AMLR is anticipated within three years, potentially by 2027, pending approval by the EU Council and the European Parliament plenary session scheduled for April 10th. Patrick Breyer, a member of the Pirate Party Germany in the European Parliament, criticized the new laws in a recent press release, arguing that they compromise economic independence and financial privacy, considering anonymous transactions a fundamental right.

The response by the crypto community to these regulatory actions by the European Union has been mixed, to say the least. While some view the regulations as necessary, others express concerns about potential privacy infringements and limitations on economic activities.

Daniel Tröster, host of the Sound Money Bitcoin Podcast, highlighted practical challenges and consequences of the legislation, particularly its impact on donations and cryptocurrency usage in the EU, expressing worries about its restrictive effects.


March 25,2024

Goldman Sachs Clients Look To Get Back Into Crypto This Year

Institutional clients served by the Goldman Sachs Asia Pacific division are demonstrating renewed interest in Bitcoin, Ether, and other cryptocurrency assets. Goldman Sachs clients in Asia Pacific have reportedly reengaged with cryptocurrencies this year, spurred by the endorsement of spot Bitcoin exchange-traded funds.

According to a report on March 24th, Max Minton, the head of digital assets for Goldman Asia Pacific, mentioned that several major clients have recently become active in or are considering involvement in the crypto sector. Minton attributed much of this revived interest to the approval of ten new Bitcoin ETFs in the United States in January, which solidified cryptocurrency assets as a more integrated aspect of traditional markets.


A Resurgence

Minton claimed that the recent ETF approval has prompted a resurgence of interest and activities. The majority of the increased demand primarily originates via pre-existing clients utilizing the options and futures offerings of the firm, with hedge funds being the most engaged among them. Goldman Sachs recorded a record $2.8 trillion in assets under management by the end of 2023.

It is also noteworthy that currently, Goldman does not provide any spot crypto products to its clients, despite launching its initial crypto trading desk in 2021. The desk solely deals with exposure to crypto derivatives, such as Bitcoin and Ether options and futures. Minton remarked that it was indeed a quieter year last year, but that there has been a sudden surge in interest by clients in onboarding, pipeline, and volume since the start of 2024.


Ethereum Could Be Next

The aforementioned clients primarily utilize derivatives to gain exposure to crypto volatility and to make weighted predictions on mid-term price movements. Bitcoin-related products remain the most favored investment instruments among active clients. Once again, Minton discussed the potential approval of a spot Ether ETF in the United States, which could potentially shift institutional clients towards Ethereum.

However, various ETF analysts have assessed the likelihood of an Ether ETF approval by May at just 35%, with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission choosing to extend their radio silence towards potential fund issuers. Unsurprisingly then, this attitude by the agency is being frowned upon and many are becoming increasingly pessimistic.

Irrespective of an ETF approval, Minton indicated that Goldman aims to expand into a broader universe of clients, including asset management funds, banks, and more specialized crypto asset firms in the future.


March 25,2024

Fundraising Deals - 19th To 25th March 2024

CryptoWeekly is proud to bring you the latest fundraising deals in Web3! Well done to everyone.



Espresso Systems secured $28M in Series B Funding from a16z crypto, propelling innovation in the United States market. Espresso is designed to offer rollups a means of achieving credible neutrality, enhanced interoperability, and long-term alignment with Ethereum.



Succinct raised $55M in Series A round led by Paradigm, marking a significant milestone for disruptive solutions in the United States. Succinct primarily focuses on making zero-knowledge proofs accessible to any developer.



Tanssi Network raised $6M in Seed funding from KR1, enhancing blockchain solutions in France. Appchains connected to the Tanssi Network transform into ContainerChains, gaining access to a range of tools and resources.



CoinMart secured $4M in Seed funding from IDG Capital, fueling growth in The Netherlands. CoinMart aims to democratize crypto investment and trading for all. Their mission is to bring cryptocurrency into everyone's reach while offering unparalleled simplicity, unwavering safety & security, and modest fees.



Rails raised $6.2M in Seed funding from Slow Ventures, expanding opportunities from the Cayman Islands. Rails enables users to trade crypto derivatives at lightning speed while maintaining self-custody.



Ago successfully completed a $2.5M Initial Coin Offering, paving the way for innovation in The Netherlands. The company's mission statement is that users don't need banks anymore as Ago makes it easy to invest in crypto and manage money.



Kemet Trading secured $5M in Angel funding, driving advancements in the United States market. Kemet provides the first true institutional single-access point into the digital asset derivative ecosystem.



Matter Labs completed a $50M Initial Coin Offering with support from Sygnum, advancing blockchain technology in Germany.



Cathedral Studios raised $6.6M in Seed funding from Arca, fostering innovation in the United Kingdom.



MANTRA secured $11M in Seed funding from undisclosed investors, driving growth in Hong Kong. As the first RWA Layer 1 blockchain, MANTRA is capable of adherence and enforcement of real world regulatory requirements.



GRVT raised $2.2M in Seed funding from QCP Capital, expanding opportunities in Singapore.



Keyring Network secured $6M in Seed funding from Greenfield, enhancing blockchain solutions in the UK. Keyring focuses on permissioning tools for compliant transactions on-chain, powered by zero-knowledge privacy.



Tokenize Xchange raised $15.5M in Series A funding from TRIVE, empowering digital asset exchange in Singapore. The Tokenize team aspires to build the next-generation digital currency exchange that supports established and emerging virtual currencies.



Exciting times ahead for the blockchain and crypto industry! Be sure to follow CryptoWeekly for the all the latest updates about Web3 fundraising.

March 24,2024

Bitcoin Undergoes Price Correction As International Economies Look To Recover

A significant portion of the cryptocurrency market experienced losses, with Ethereum (ETH) and Binance Coin (BNB) witnessing declines of approximately 4% and 5%, respectively. Bitcoin (BTC) continues to face price challenges, having dropped to $62,500 recently before recovering approximately two thousand USD.

Altcoins have also seen declines on a daily basis, contributing to the total crypto market cap remaining under $2.6 trillion. BTC faced a contrasting start to the current business week compared to the previous one, when it surged above $73,000 to reach its latest all-time high. However, bearish sentiment has dominated the market in the past week, evident via data provided by CoinMarketCap.


Bitcoin Down But Sentiments Still Up

Bitcoin experienced significant declines on Monday and Tuesday, preceding the second FOMC meeting of the year. It reached a 15-day low of under $61,000 amidst concerns over potential changes in monetary policies put forth by the Fed. Despite no such alterations by the US central bank, BTC quickly rebounded and surpassed $68,000 on Wednesday. However, this rebound was short-lived as the asset promptly dropped to $62,500 the following day.

Despite the recent declines, Bitcoin has shown resilience, possibly influenced by continuous ETF outflows, and has recovered more than two thousand dollars. Nevertheless, BTC remains down by over 2% on a daily basis, with its market cap below $1.3 trillion.

Altcoins also experienced losses on a daily basis, with Ethereum down 4% and struggling below $3,400, and BNB down by 4.5% below $560. Other altcoins such as Ripple, Solana, Cardano, Avalanche, Shiba Inu, Polkadot, and Tron have also witnessed declines in the past 24 hours, albeit to a lesser extent. TON emerged as the top performer among larger-cap altcoins, experiencing a daily surge of more than 11% and nearing $5. Bitcoin Cash is another notable gainer among the top 36 altcoins, with a daily jump of over 4% to $435.


Other Markets

Raphael Bostic, President of the Atlanta Federal Reserve, highlighted a shift in forecasts, with Bostic now projecting only one interest rate cut for the year. This adjustment sparked a bullish frenzy on Wall Street, prompting a surge in buying activity. Meanwhile, hedge funds are seen increasing their bearish Yen bets following a dovish policy hike by the Bank of Japan.

Elsewhere, China has downplayed economic risks while emphasizing policy flexibility, and retailers resort to extreme discounts amidst sluggish consumer spending. Additionally, Zimbabwe plans to maintain its local currency despite losses, while reduced cocoa crop yields in Ghana impacts local trade surplus. There is also concern in the chocolate market as prices surge due to cocoa deterioration in West Africa.

Meanwhile, El Salvador saw its economy go ahead of GDP figures. In Europe, Citi predicts continued growth in the stock market rally, while in the US, there is significant outflows by stocks leading up to the Federal Reserve meeting.


March 23,2024

Hackers Can Access Cryptographic Private Keys Of Mac Users

Apple recently encountered a critical vulnerability enabling the extraction of sensitive data. Numerous concerns were raised following the discovery of a potentially catastrophic flaw in the Apple M-series chips, which could apparently allow hackers to obtain the cryptographic private keys of Mac users. Without a direct solution, researchers propose an alternative approach, which could severely impact performance.


Vulnerability In M-Series Chips Enables Key Retrieval

The identified vulnerability operates as a side channel, facilitating the retrieval of end-to-end keys during the execution of common cryptographic protocols on Apple chips. Due to its microarchitectural nature, direct patching is not feasible, unlike conventional vulnerabilities.

Instead, the report suggests integrating defenses into third-party cryptographic software as a solution. However, this method might significantly impact the performance of M-series chips during cryptographic tasks, particularly noticeable in earlier generations like M1 and M2.

The researchers further explain that the vulnerability is exploited when both the targeted cryptographic operation and a malicious application, operating with standard user system privileges, are processed on the same CPU cluster.

The key insight is that while the DMP only dereferences pointers, an attacker can craft program inputs so that when those inputs mix with cryptographic secrets, the resulting intermediate state can be engineered to look like a pointer if and only if the secret satisfies an attacker-chosen predicate.


The GoFetch Exploit

The latest research reveals an overlooked issue concerning DMPs within Apple silicon. In specific scenarios, these DMPs misinterpret memory content, including critical key material, as the pointer value used for loading other data. Consequently, the DMP frequently accesses and interprets this data as an address, leading to memory access attempts, as explained by the team of researchers.

This process, termed dereferencing of pointers, involves reading data and inadvertently leaking it through a side channel, representing a clear breach of the constant-time paradigm. The researchers identify the exploit as GoFetch, operating under the same user privileges as most third-party applications, targeting vulnerabilities in clusters of M-series chips. It affects both classical and quantum-resistant encryption algorithms, with extraction times varying between minutes to hours depending on the key size.